The answer to the question “What is ambient light in photography?” is very straight forward – it’s whatever light is already lighting the scene before the photographer arrived and started adding light.
But if you want a more of a specific answer:
Sunlight is ambient light.
Street lighting is ambient light.
Candle light is ambient light.
House lights are ambient light.
Neon shops signs provide ambient light.
You get the picture?
It can be natural light or artificial light. It’s whatever light is already lighting the scene, not added by the photographer.
Will my photos be affected by ambient light?
Most of the time, yes, ambient light is visible in photos.
The only time it isn’t is when photographing with flash and setting the exposure so that the scene is recorded as black if the flash doesn’t fire. In other words, underexposing the ambient light (a lot!).
I took this photo in my studio. I wanted a very contrasty image with deep shadows, so it’s lit entirely by flash. No ambient light.
The color of ambient light changes according to the type of light.
If for example you’re photographing a basketball game in the gym, your eyes just see a well lit gym. Your camera sees a scene lit by light with a greenish tinge.
This is because most of the time the type of lights used to light a gym are probably halogen (unless they’ve been updated to LED lights). Halogen lights are not white. To counteract the green tinge, adjust your white balance and hey presto, the people in your photos no longer look ill.
The same goes for photographing indoors in low light with the house lights on. Except, instead of green, the light will appear very yellow, even orange, in photos.
So, when photographing with ambient light, it’s really important to set your white balance for the type of light. You could adjust it afterwards on the computer, but that’s one more thing to do later. So you may as well do it right from the start.
And while we’re on the subject, don’t be tempted to set your white balance to auto, because it’ll increase your time in post processing. For consistency you’ll have to adjust the white balance on each photo, because auto white balance constantly changes white balance settings during a shoot.
Going back to what I was saying about flash and ambient light…
You can combine ambient light with flash. The trick again is keeping an eye on your white balance. When using two different types of light, you can set white balance to only one of them, so one won’t be correctly balanced.
This isn’t a disaster. In fact it’s a great way to get creative! More on that in a moment.
A photo of me for a change (hello0)! I did this selfie in my studio using flash, but this time I combined it with natural light coming in the large windows opposite me.
How do you take ambient light pictures?
Natural light is a type of ambient light, so taking ambient light pictures is the same process as any natural light photo.
To make the most of ambient light you need to take control of the scene, which is a two step process:
- Camera settings
- Controlling the light
Camera settings for ambient light
How to expose for ambient light:
- Decide on the mode you want to use: manual mode, aperture priority mode, shutter priority mode or program mode.
- Measure the light using either your camera’s reflective light meter, or an incident light meter.
- Adjust your aperture, shutter speed and ISO according to the scene, look you want, subject and activity. What you adjust depends on which shooting mode you use.
- Snap away.
Sound familiar? It should do.
It’s exactly what you do when photographing with natural light, which is a type of ambient light in photography.
Have you ever taken a photo at night around a campfire using the fire as your light source? The fire was your ambient light. Because of the low light conditions, you no doubt had to increase your ISO, slow down your shutter speed and widen your aperture.
Your camera settings determine how much ambient light is allowed in the photo.
In other words, you can underexpose, overexpose or accurately expose the ambient light with your camera settings using the exposure triangle.
You’ll see why this is important to know in a moment.
Controlling ambient light in photography
You have three ways to control light, regardless of what type of light it is:
- Reflect – bounce light back into your subject with a reflector or any reflective surface
- Diffuse – partially block the light with a diffuser or any thin fabric that lets through some, but not all, of the light
- Block (aka flag) – use a solid object (black or white) to cast shadow over your subject so that no direct light lands on them. The object can be handheld or look for the shadow cast by a large object, like a building or a tree.
If you understand ambient light so far, you’re ready for more advanced lighitng techniques.
How do you use ambient light?
You can combine ambient light in portrait photography with other types of light.
So, if the ambient is:
- Natural light – you can add flash, or a constant light (like a desk lamp)
- Neon shop signs – you can add flash or a constant light (like LED light)
This is where the point that I made earlier becomes important – your camera settings determine how much of the ambient light is recorded.
I underexposed the ambient light for a dark(ish) background and lit her with flash to create shadows to flatter her face and separate her from the background.
If you want the subject to stand out and the background to be dark:
- Underexpose the ambient light (i.e. measure the light on the background and set your aperture, shutter speed and ISO to underexpose it)
- Then add enough light to your subject so that they’re accurately exposed
If you want the subject and the background to be equally lit, but the light is behind your subject so the side facing you is in shadow and the background is not:
- Accurately expose the ambient light (i.e. measure the light on the background and set your aperture, shutter speed and ISO to expose it correctly)
- Then add enough light to your subject so that they’re also accurately exposed. In short, balance the ambient light with your flash (or whatever you’re using to light the subject)
Just make sure you set your white balance for the light falling on your subject.
If you understand this concept, you’re ready to learn how to use off camera flash.
Further reading: Getting started with off camera flash
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