I mentioned high key photography last week in the tutorial on how to read a histogram, so now feels like a great time to talk about what is high key photography and how to achieve a high key image.
If you didn’t catch the article, read about it here: How to read a histogram and why it’s not perfect
What is high key photography?
I’ll start by saying that high key photography is not overexposed everything. Just because a photo is bright to achieve the “light and airy” look, does not mean that it is a high key image. It might just be an overexposed image.
High key photographs have minimal tonal range. They lack deep contrast caused by harsh shadows. You’ll find too that the overall colour palette is light. The object of high key photography is to convey a happy, positive vibe and the lack of contrast lends itself to the upbeat vibe.
While the colors in a high key image are generally light, they don’t have to be white. The background doesn’t have to be white either. It also doesn’t mean that you can’t have any dark colors in a high key image, only that most of the image will be light colors.
On the other hand, low key images are contrast rich. The deep shadows, stark contrast between light and dark, as well as the dark colors all work to create a moody and dramatic atmosphere.
It’s worth noting that images are not either high key or low key. There is a full range of mid key photography between these two opposites.
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What subject matter suits high key photography?
If you can think of a happy, vibrant, energetic subject, then it is well suited to high key photography. Some examples are:
- Family photography
- Health and wellness
- Product photography
Of course, there are a lot more examples, but let’s take a closer look at these three.
1. Family photography
Family photography is the first thing that springs to mind. Happy images of families having fun together in the sunshine, or in a light and bright studio. Sometimes with a completely white background, but not always.
2. Health and wellness
Anything that promotes health and wellness, because the feeling of lightness immediately lends a sense of wellness to the image. It feels like summer, and summer feels good.
3. Product photography
Some product photography, but not all. If your product is an upbeat product, such as yoga clothing or children’s toys, then high key is great. If it is moody, dramatic or mellow, like red wine, a low key image would be better suited.
How do you photograph a high key image?
So, earlier when I said that a high key photograph is not overexposed everything, the operative word was everything.
Very often in high key photography we overexpose the background, sometimes even blow it out. The subject, however, should be accurately exposed, even if it is a bit to the right of the histogram. An underexposed person in a high key portrait can look quite unwell.
The trick to a successful high key image is in managing the balance between the light on the background and the light on the subject.
Three lighting scenarios for a high key image
You can create a high key image anywhere that has a big enough light source for your subject. Let’s look at three completely different lighting scenarios:
- Natural light outside
- Natural light inside
- Studio lighting
1. Natural light outside
If you’re shooting outdoors with natural light only, using a reflector works wonders to bounce some light back into your subject. This is for two reasons – to reduce shadows on your subject and so that you don’t have to completely blow out the background to get your subject bright enough. This is particularly the case if your subject is backlit.
Further reading: How to use a reflector properly and why you really need one
Pay attention to the background and and make sure they’re light in color. To avoid harsh shadows on your subject, shoot in open shade.
Overcast days are perfect for high key photography outdoors!
2. Natural light indoors
You don’t need to be outside to create a high key image with natural light. Being indoors is ideally suited to it, because your windows make great high key backgrounds!
Set your exposure for your subject and, as the light is coming from behind your subject, the background will automatically be overexposed to the point of being blown out. Using a reflector would again be helpful for bouncing some light back into your subject to create catchlights.
Another tip – avoid windows with direct sunlight pouring in, because the light will be too bright. Any direct light that falls onto your subject will overexpose the edges of the subject.
3. In the studio
For high key photography in a studio, use a light coloured background and light the background separately from your subject. Set your background light/s 1 to 2 stops brighter than the key light on your subject.
Depending on your light modifier (softbox, beauty dish or umbrella) and how close it is to your subject, or subjects, you may also need a fill light to lighten the shadows and so reduce contrast on your subject. If this is the case, the fill light needs to be a half to 1 stop below your key light. Diffusing the light will make it softer, which ultimately makes the shadows softer.
As an aside… I know some photographers set up their lighting by trial and error – they take test shots and see what it looks like as they build up the lighting set up. This is too vague and fiddly for me, so I’ve always used a light meter for a quick set up that doesn’t require my subject to sit/stand in position and wait for me to be ready. It also ensures an accurate lighting ratio.
Quick technique tip for high key photography
With all that light bouncing around in front of your lens, it is better not to shoot wide open, otherwise your images could become cloudy. I wouldn’t go wider than f4.
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