Hair lights are a subtle, but important light in portrait photography. While they’re used just as much in studio based portrait photography as they used to be, HOW we use hair lights in photography has relaxed quite a bit from the classical portrait photography style. These days, very often using a hair light is a subtle addition to the lighting set up, rather than the very obvious and strong hair light of a few decades ago.
In fact, often a hair light isn’t particularly obvious to the untrained eye, until you see the same image taken without a hair light.
That’s not to say that all hair lights are subtle these days, only that we’re no longer as rigid in how we light portraits.
Why use a hair light in studio photography?
Hair lights are used mostly in studio photography. They can be used when photographing with off camera flash outdoors on location shoots, but not as often as in the studio as part of a two, or more, point lighting set up.
Using a hair light in portraits creates a dramatic look, which makes a photograph stand out from the crowd.
Advantages of a hair light:
- It separates the subject from the background, especially if the subject has dark hair and is photographed against a black background, or even just a dark background
- The separation adds depth to an image by creating a three dimensional feel
- Brings out the texture in the hair, especially dark hair, which can easily look like a dark lump if no hair light is used
- Adds another layer of light to a portrait, which makes it more eye catching
A well executed multi-light set up looks more professional, because of the added skill needed to set up a hair light rather than photographing with just a single light.
What is a hair light in portrait photography?
A hair light in portrait photography is an accent light, a small light source, aimed at the top of the head or the top and back of the head. It illuminates the hair and traditionally also lights the top of the shoulders. I say traditionally, because often these days photographers use a hair light to light the hair only.
The quality and quantity of the hair light depends on the photographer’s taste. It can be:
- Hard light or soft light (quality)
- Subtle or very obvious (quantity)
Further reading: Light quality & quantity of light – essential knowledge
Hair light vs backlight
So if both a hair light and a backlight are placed behind the subject, what’s the difference?
A hair light is a separate light that lights only the hair and possibly also the shoulder of the subject.
A backlight is a separation light that lights a far greater area of the subject from behind creating a rim of light which separates them from the background.
Further reading: Backlight photography tips for magical photos
Hair light vs rim light
A rim light is also a separation light and an edge light. It lights only the edge of the subject from behind or behind and to the side. From the front it appears as a thin halo like strip of light along their body.
A hair light lights only the hair and not necessarily just the very edge of the hair. It can wash over the top and side of the head to bring out the texture of the hair – as long as it doesn’t wash over the subject’s face.
Further reading: Rim light – the simple lighting technique behind dramatic photos
How to set up a hair light for portraits in studio photography
Let’s start with what NOT to do. When setting up a hair light it’s important that:
- The power of the hair light isn’t too high so that the highlights it creates in the subject’s hair aren’t blown out
- It doesn’t spill over onto the subject’s facial features, particularly the subject’s forehead
- So don’t position it directly over the subject
- It also shouldn’t spill onto the background
- Light from the hair light shouldn’t strike the lens, otherwise it’ll cause lens flare, which will wash out contrast and colors in the image
Also, I know it’s probably stating the obvious, but you shouldn’t use a hair light on bald subjects – no need and too much reflection.
Now let’s look at how to set up a hair light…
Where to position a hair light
A hair light must be positioned high and angled down towards the back of the subject to achieve the correct angle of incidence that will create the specularity you want. That’s the level of reflection of the light on your subject’s hair.
The exact position depends on how concentrated your hair light is and what part of the hair you want to light.
You have a choice of three positions, all behind the subject, higher up and angled down:
- Behind and to the left
- Behind and in the middle
- Behind and to the right
In the classic portrait style the hair light would be on the same side of the subject as the key light (main light). However, it’s not unusual these days for photographers to place the hair light on the opposite side of the subject from the key light.
When angling the light down, take care to ensure that it won’t point into the camera lens. If it is pointing at the camera, you’ll have to flag the light – block it with something so that the light doesn’t hit your lens and cause flare. Even a simple piece of cardboard works well as a flag.
A good way to check that no light is fall on your subject’s face is to turn off the key light and take a shot with just the hair light on. The face should be in darkness and only the hair, or hair and shoulders, should be lit.
Further reading: What is a key light in photography and how do you use it?
Power settings for a hair light
When lights are positioned at an angle to the subject, they may appear brighter, even if they’re the same power output, so you need to be aware of what the light looks like when it hits your subject. If necessary you might need to turn down the power of the hair light to less than the key light.
Again, this type of hair lighting differs from older style portraits where the hair light was a stop or two brighter than the key light and really obvious.
Now, for a more subtle looking hair light, set the hair light equal to or lower than the power of the key light is the general rule. I highly recommend using a light meter so that you can establish your settings quickly, accurately and efficiently. How bright you set the light is up to you and what you like, but it’s best to start subtle and then up the power if you prefer.
Further reading: Why you need an incident light meter for accurate exposure
Your subject’s hair color also has a big impact on the best power setting for your light. Dark hair requires more light than blond, gray or white hair. In fact if you use the same power on light hair, the highlights would be blown out.
- Black hair – set hair light one to 2 stops above the key light
- Brown hair – set hair light equal to the key light
- Blond / grey / white hair – set hair light one to two stops less than the key light
With very light hair you might not need, or want, a hair light at all.
The flash sync speed of your camera might have an impact on your light settings. So, to avoid using high speed sync, if you can’t get your hair light power low enough, either move the light further away or feather the light.
When you feather light, you turn the light so it’s not directly pointed at the subject, which means that they’re not lit by the hot spot at the center of the light. Only the edge light from the light modifier strikes the subject, which is much softer.
Just be extra careful to avoid lens flare when feathering the light as by turning the light away from the subject you might end up pointing it straight at your lens.
What light modifier to use for a hair light
There’s no hard rule for the quality of the hair light. It comes down the the taste and creative control of the individual photographer. However, the type of light modifier you use for the hair light should be the same as the key light in that it should produce the same type of light – hard or soft.
So if your key light is fitted with a reflector or you’re using the bare bulb for hard light, the hair light should also produce hard light. You might need to fit a honeycomb grid to the reflector or barn doors to the light to prevent it from spilling onto the background, your subject’s face or into the lens.
I like to use a stripbox (a long, skinny softbox) as a hair light fitted with a grid for more precise control to prevent light spill onto the background or the subject’s face.
A stripbox is also ideal if you’re photographing groups of two or more people as you can turn it sideways to cover more than just one person. Of course you’ll need a longer strip box for a group of four than you would for a couple.
Different light modifiers and light accessories create different effects. Experiment with all types of light – hard and soft and light modifiers to find a light setup that you like. Then practice it so that it will be easy to repeat whenever you want to achieve a particular look.
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