What is symmetry in photography composition?
The easiest way to describe symmetry in photography composition is that if you were to fold a symmetrical photograph in half, along the line of symmetry, you would have two identical photos.
That is, if the photograph has exact symmetry.
The symmetrical composition doesn’t have to exist in the entire image for it to have symmetry. Parts of the frame can be symmetrical. Or you could get in close and concentrate on just the symmetry, so that all other detail is cropped out.
What’s more, symmetry doesn’t have to be perfect. In fact, a slight break in symmetry can be very appealing.
How to make symmetry in photos even more interesting
Here’s why it works. A symmetrical image grabs attention. Once you have your viewer’s attention and they go in for a closer look, a break in the symmetry catches the eye and gives it somewhere to rest.
Breaking the symmetry can also introduce tension to an image, which automatically makes it more interesting.
Do you find your eyes keep going to the dark button in this image?
Where to find symmetry in photography composition
When you start looking, you’ll be surprised by how much symmetry you see around you, both manmade and natural. But first, let’s look at types of symmetry.
Three types of symmetry
There are three main types of symmetry that you’ll see around you every day.
1. Vertical symmetry
When the left and right side of a photo are symmetrical, this is vertical symmetry.
How to use vertical symmetry in composition
Buildings and roads naturally make good subjects for symmetrically composed images. If a road is placed centrally in the composition, the line down the middle already splits the image in two.
Roads are good for vertical symmetry. In this example, although the sides of the road are different, they appear symmetrical.
(PS – We’re not crazy. We were quite literally in the middle of nowhere on a very long, very straight road and hadn’t seen another car for an hour when we did this.)
Columns are also a great example of vertical symmetry in photography composition.
If you’re photographing architecture, symmetry in composition is quite clean cut and obvious, but when you’re photographing people it can be less so. The symmetry is still there, however.
Arranging wedding guests in two lines for the bride and groom to go through the middle while the guests throw confetti is a great example of why symmetry in photography composition works. Apart from the fact that that way all the guests get to participate in the confetti tradition, the loosely symmetrical lines of guests make for interesting composition and leads the viewer to the bride and groom in the middle.
Speaking of weddings. The shot from the back of the church down the aisle, with the ends of pews on either side of the aisle in frame is symmetrical composition. It also leads the viewer to the focus point, the bride and groom in the middle of the image.
Further reading: How to use leading lines for awesome photography composition
2. Horizontal symmetry in photos
Horizontal symmetry exists when the top and bottom of an image are symmetrical.
Reflections are a great example of horizontal symmetry.
When photographing reflections it’s very easy to combine symmetry with the rule of thirds, which otherwise seems to be a contradiction. If your main point of interest is at the cross section of the rule of thirds and the scene is reflected in water, you’ll naturally combine these two composition rules.
3. Radial symmetry
Images that radiate from a central point have radial symmetry, such as:
- Spokes on a bicycle wheel
- Petals on a daisy
- Circular ripples of water when a stone is tossed into a pond
What makes good symmetry in photography composition?
Like with the other rules of composition, for a symmetrical image to be compelling, the composition must also be strong.
There must be something that draws your eye to the image and makes you want to linger on it.
A strong focal point draws the viewer in and holds their interest.
Further reading: Secrets of great focal point composition
Symmetrical balance in photos
Symmetry in photography composition is achieved when two halves of an image hold the same weight. This is also known as formal balance, or symmetrical balance.
However, this symmetry doesn’t have to be literal in the sense of one half of an image exactly mirroring the other. Symmetry in composition can also be achieved when different elements are used to appear symmetrical.
Symmetry is one of a number of techniques for creating a static composition, which conveys a sense of calm and orderliness.
Symmetry in photography composition doesn’t need to be a mirror image of two halves. The image can appear symmetrical if the two halves are made of similar elements.
Symmetry, repetition and patterns in composition
Symmetry goes hand in hand with repetition and patterns.
- If an object is repeated so there are two, it forms symmetry
- Repeat it again and we see repetition (you don’t say!)
- Any object that’s repeated enough times will form a pattern
The same guides apply to patterns as to symmetry in composition. That being that a break in the pattern makes it more interesting, catches the eye and gives it somewhere to rest.
Where to find symmetry in photography composition
When you start looking, you’ll be surprised by how much symmetry you see around you, both manmade and natural. Here are some ideas to get you started…
- Shelves of new releases at the bookstore
- A row of windows
- A full rack of bicycles
- Rows of lavender growing in a field
- A puddle, a lake, any flat water
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