What is contrast in photography?\r\nLike in life, contrast in photography is the use of opposites. As they say, variety is the spice of life, so just the presence of contrast in a photo makes it more engaging, because the difference is interesting. Unlike my senior school math teach who spoke in a monotone!\r\nBut there's more to contrast than just variety. It's an element of design, a composition tool photographers use to add to atmosphere and influence the feeling of a photo.\r\nContrast is also a highly effective way of making the subject stand out in a photo, which makes the image more engaging.\u00a0To understand why read about the Gestalt principle of figure to ground in our tutorial on Gestalt theory.\r\n\r\nFurther reading:\u00a0Harness the power Gestalt theory in photography\r\n\r\nHow do you use contrast in photos?\r\nContrast can be created in a number of ways. The three most common are:\r\n\r\nTonal contrast - the dynamic range of a photo extending from pure white, through gray, to pure black\r\nColor contrast - the use of color theory to create interesting images\r\nContrast in composition is called juxtaposition - using two opposing concepts in an image\r\n\r\nI\u2019ve written about color contrast and juxtaposition\u2026\r\n\r\nFurther reading:\u00a0\r\nUsing color in photography composition for standout photos\r\nMaster juxtaposition in photography for powerful composition\r\nWhat is dynamic range in photography exposure?\r\n\r\nSo now let\u2019s explore how to use tonal contrast in photography.\r\nWhy use tonal contrast in photography?\r\nUsing a tonal contrast that matches the mood of a photo enhances the message and helps the viewer understand the photo. When you create emotion in an image, you engage the viewer and hold their attention longer.\r\nHave you noticed how toothpaste adverts are very bright and white? That\u2019s because we associate bright, light images with positive, upbeat feelings. So it emphasizes the message of good health.\u00a0\r\nOn the other hand, can you imagine if the scenes in Breaking Bad were all light, bright and without shadows? It just wouldn\u2019t gel. The contrast of light and dark is a visual clue that it\u2019s a gritty, dramatic subject.\r\nThat said, shadows aren't just for crime. Images with shadows evoke deep emotions.\r\n This image uses a broad range of tonal contrast from dark to light, with most of the tones falling into the midtone to light area, as you can see in the histogram below. The feeling is lighthearted and happy.\r\n\r\n\r\nFurther reading:\u00a0How to read a histogram and why it\u2019s not perfect\r\n\r\nHow do you create tonal contrast in an image?\r\nYou need light and dark areas in an image for tonal contrast. The bigger the difference between the two, the greater the tonal range will be and therefore the tonal contrast.\r\nLight is the ultimate creator of tonal contrast in photos, because with light comes shadow. The trick lies in recognizing the impact of light and then mastering how you use it to control shadows.\r\n1. Use direction of light for contrast in photos\r\nThe direction of light on your subject impacts the shadows and therefore the amount of contrast in an image:\r\n\r\nFront light - ideal if you want flat lighting without shadows\r\nSide light - skims light across your subject to create form and emphasize texture by creating shadows\r\nBacklight - perfect for deep shadows and bright highlights that define the edges of your subject\r\n\r\n\r\nFurther reading: \u00a0Understand the characteristics of light for consistently great photos\r\n\r\n2. How quality of light affects contrast in photos\r\nWhen we talk about quality of the light, we're describing how hard or soft it is. This will also have a big impact on the tonal contrast of the scene.\r\nSoft light tonal contrast\r\nSoft light creates soft shadows, if any.\r\nThink of an overcast day - the heavier the clouds the more faded shadows will be until there are no shadows. The image at the top of this article was shot at the end of a very overcast day once the sun had dipped below the horizon. These sorts of days are ideally suited to low contrast photography.\r\n\r\nFurther reading:\u00a0Soft light photography \u2013 4 facts every photographer should know\r\n\r\nHard light tonal contrast\r\nHard light creates bright highlights and deep shadows.\r\nThink of a bright sunny day - lots of light, but also strong shadows. So on a sunny day high contrast photography is easy to achieve.\r\n\r\nFurther reading:\u00a0Light quality & quantity of light \u2013 essential knowledge\r\n\r\nWhich brings us to the next point\u2026\r\nWhat\u2019s the difference between low contrast and high contrast photography?\r\nContrast is not about how light or dark a photo is, but the difference between the tonal values of the lightest area and the darkest area.\r\nLow contrast photography\r\nWith low contrast photography, the range of tones in a photo is very narrow. In other words, there isn\u2019t a big difference between the brightest part of the image and the darkest part.\r\nIf you have a look at the histogram of a low contrast photo, you\u2019ll see that the histogram spikes are bunched together, usually to the right of the histogram for a light low contrast image, as with the image below.\r\n\r\n\r\nYou could also have a dark low contrast image, in which case the histogram will be bunched to the left. Low contrast doesn't mean bright, it just means that there's a small tonal value difference between light and dark.\r\n\r\nFurther reading:\u00a0What is high key photography, and how to master it\r\n\r\nHigh contrast photography\r\nOn the other hand, high contrast photos encompass a broad range of tones, from deep shadows to bright highlights.\r\nThe histogram will be wide ranging, because it will contain information in all areas from black to white. In a very high contrast image you\u2019ll see tones all the way from deepest black on the left to brightest white on the right.\r\nYou can adjust the image in post processing to deepen the shadows and raise the highlights further using the tone curve. In Lightroom, for example, you would use the whites, blacks, highlights and shadows sliders to increase the tonal contrast, as well as the tone curve tool.\r\n\r\nFurther reading:\u00a0Master the Lightroom tone curve for much better photos\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nUsing contrast for different photography styles\r\nIf we compare these popular styles of photography you can see how the use of contrast affects mood in a photo.\r\nContrast for a light and airy style\r\nThis is really popular for lifestyle family photography. It conveys a happy summer vibe and reminds you of those carefree days of your childhood.\r\nThere are minimal shadows, colors are muted and skies are often blown out. If you look at the histogram, most, if not all, of the information is to the right in the lights and highlights area.\r\nIn post production, shadows are lifted further to reduce tonal contrast. Sometimes vibrance is reduced to mute the brighter colors and so reduce color contrast.\r\n\r\n\r\nContrast for a dark and moody style\r\nWhen photographing people, dark and moody is a great style for couple photography, because the shadows convey deep emotions.\r\nWindy days that catch long hair and dramatic skies are perfect for dark and moody. Again, because this style is full of emotion. Hair and clothes blowing in the wind conveys a sense of movement.\r\nShadows are deep, but soft. No hard edges.\r\n The histogram is bunched to the left in the shadows and then spreads out across darks and midtones, but doesn't extend to the highlights on the left.\r\n\r\nContrast for a dramatic style\r\nI love dramatic light for boudoir and fitness photography. It\u2019s bold and eye catching, but at the same time feels intimate, because of all the shadows.\r\nDramatic images are high contrast photos. They\u2019re predominantly dark with deep shadows and occasional highlights. Perfect for emphasising curves and defining muscle tone.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nFurther reading:\u00a0How to use shadows in photos to add atmosphere\r\n\r\nTonal contrast in conclusion\r\nWhen planning a shoot, think first about the feeling you want to create in the photo. This will inform how you use light to create the contrast that suites the style of the shoot.\r\nIf you use natural light, it will impact the time of day you shoot, where you shoot (in full sun, open shade or indoors) and where you position your subject in relation to the sun (back to the sun, facing the sun or side on).\r\nLikewise, if you use flash to light your subject, or a combination of flash and ambient light, where you position the light in relation to your subject will have a big impact on the contrast in the photos and therefore the feeling.\r\nHow you process the photos in post production will also be impacted by the intention you set out with before you took your first photo.\r\n\r\nLeave a comment\r\nIf you have any questions about using tonal contrast in photography, let us know in the comments.\r\nAlso, we love good news, so if our contrast tips have helped you to understand how contrast impacts an image, share that too.\r\nWill this photography tutorial help you to use tonal contrast?\r\nShare the learning... pin it, post it.